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Supplement Glossary

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3D Energy

Formally known as Up Energy, an energy drink created by Christian Guzman, a YouTube influencer.

See More: 3D Energy Products.

5% Nutrition

A supplement brand started by bodybuilder Rich Piana designed for the 5% of people doing what it takes to achieve their goals.

See More: 5% Nutrition Products.

A

Agmatine

A chemical substance created from the amino acid arginine. It is a supplement designed to improve workout pumps and promote lean body mass.

Amino Acids

Organic compounds that combine to form proteins; when humans consume proteins, the body digests and breaks the food down until amino acids are left. You will often see amino acids referred to as the building blocks of protein. There are three groups: essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids, and conditional amino acids.

B

BCAA

See Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

Beta-Alanine

An amino acid and a supplement designed to improve athletic performance.

Branched-Chain Amino Acids

Often contracted to BCAAs. They are three of the nine essential amino acids, which are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Branched-chain refers to the molecular structure of these amino acids, and they play a key role in muscle preservation and building. You get BCAAs from protein-rich food and supplements.

C

Caffeine

A stimulant used to enhance feelings of alertness and decrease your perceived sleepiness. It works by blocking adenosine from binding with receptors in your brain, preventing you from feeling tired. Caffeine is most widely consumed in coffee and tea, but many supplements utilize it as well.

Carbohydrates

Also known as carbs. A biomolecule found in fruits, grains, vegetables, dairy products, and many forms of “junk” food. Carbs are a macronutrient that provide the human body with calories for energy. Your body needs carbohydrates to function.

Carnitine

See L-Carnitine.

Casein Protein

See Protein (Casein).

Citrulline

See L-Citrulline.

CLA

See Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

Collagen

An abundant protein within the body and a supplement taken to improve skin health and boost muscle mass.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Are a fatty acid found in meat and dairy. CLA is a popular sports supplement used to burn fat and prevent dietary fat from storing in your cells.

Creatine

One of the most widely researched and effective sports supplements, Creatine is used to increase muscle mass and boost performance and strength. It is often one of the main ingredients in pre-workouts but can also be used on its own.

D

Detox

Short for detoxification, is the removal of toxic substances from the body. The liver is responsible for detoxing your body, and you can also use supplements to assist your liver in ridding your body of toxins.

Diuretic

A substance that promotes the production of urine. Foods like apples are natural diuretics, and some people use dietary diuretic supplements to temporarily relieve bloat and appear leaner.

E

EAA

See Essential Amino Acids.

EFA

See Essential Fatty Acids.

Ephedrine

A stimulant that was once used to aid in weight loss but is now only approved for use as a nasal decongestant. There are harmful side effects associated with the use of higher doses of ephedrine.

Essential Amino Acids

Often contracted to EAAs. These are amino acids that the human body cannot produce on its own and must be consumed through diet. There are nine essential amino acids: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Essential Fatty Acids

Are necessary for human life. They are alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3, and linoleic acid, an omega-6. We get fatty acids from foods like seafood, nuts, seeds, and plant oils. Supplements like fish oil, omega fatty acids, or other sports supplements are great ways to get your essential fatty acids, as well.

F

Fat Burner

A dietary supplement designed to assist in fat loss by increasing body temperature, thus releasing stored body fat, preventing body fat from storing, suppressing appetite, or some combination of these. Fat burners do not work on their own, and some can be dangerous if consumed in excess.

Functional Food

Foods that impact health in a positive way beyond typical nutrition.

G

Glutamine

The most abundant amino acid in the human body that comes from sources of animal protein. Glutamine supplements are used to reduce anxiety and improve intestinal health, muscle mass, and exercise performance.

Greens

Supplements made from dehydrated and powdered vegetables designed to provide you with the micronutrients from several servings of vegetables all in one convenient serving.

H

HD Muscle

A supplement company founded by two bodybuilding brothers; Noah and Dorian Hamilton.

See More: HD Muscle Products.

Hydrolyzed Protein

See Protein (Hydrolyzed).

I

Intra-Workout

Supplements used while you exercise; usually, amino acid supplements like EAAs and BCAAs are recommended for use intra-workout to prevent muscle breakdown, provide energy, improve recovery, and support muscle growth.

Intuitive Eating

Relearning to listen to what your body wants and needs regarding food.

Further Reading: Intuitive Eating Article.

Isolate Protein

See Protein (Isolate).

J

JYM Supplement Science

Supplements by sports nutrition expert Jim Stoppani, PhD.

See More: JYM Supplement Science Products.

K

Keto

See Ketogenic.

Ketogenic

An extremely low carb diet in which participants get most of their calories from protein and fats.

L

L-Carnitine

An ammonium compound involved with the metabolism. L-Carnitine supplements are used to improve athletic performance, improve brain health, and reduce muscle soreness due to exercising.

L-Citrulline

An amino acid that occurs naturally in foods like watermelon and is produced by the body. L-Citrulline is a popular sports supplement used to enhance energy and athletic performance.

Leucine

An essential amino acid that is involved in the biosynthesis of proteins within the body. A supplement, taken alone or in BCAA and EAA supplements, after working out to increase muscle mass.

M

Macronutrients

Refers to protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Counting macros is a dieting method in which the emphasis is placed on staying within macronutrient ranges instead of overall calorie consumption.

Macros

See Macronutrients.

Meal Replacement

A supplement rich in fats, carbs, and protein that serves as an adequate replacement for a full meal. People use meal replacements for convenience and to support various fitness goals, including losing weight, gaining weight, and gaining muscle mass.

Metabolism

This term describes all chemical reactions involved in sustaining life in humans and other organisms. When talking about fitness, most people are referring to the rate at which your body burns off calories consumed.

Mindful Eating

Maintaining awareness of the food and drink you’re consuming, remembering to enjoy your food, and paying attention to what your body needs.

Also See: Intuitive Eating.

Mineral

A naturally occurring, inorganic element. The human body requires at least 30 vitamins and minerals from our diets to function properly. Each mineral serves a different function in the body, and deficiencies can lead to health problems.

N

New Zealand Protein

See Protein (New Zealand).

Nootropic

Any substance, natural or synthetic, that might benefit mental skills and brain health. Supplements that support a healthy brain, memory, focus, mood, and energy, or some combination of these, are referred to as nootropics.

O

Omega-3

Polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characterized by their molecular structure; these are “healthy” fats found in seafood, nuts, seeds, and dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements are used to improve skin, brain, joint, and eye health.

P

Post-Workout

Supplements for use immediately following your workout. Post-workout supplements usually consist of proteins, carbs, and amino acids to support muscle growth and recovery.

Pre-Workout

A supplement used immediately prior to exercising. Pre-workouts come in a variety of formulations, but, in general, are designed to increase energy and enhance athletic performance, strength, endurance, and results.

Probiotics

Beneficial microorganisms that provide health benefits by restoring intestinal flora.

Protein (Casein)

A milk protein derivative. Casein is the slower digesting counterpart to whey protein.

Protein (Hydrolyzed)

Protein that is already broken down into dipeptides and tripeptides. Hydrolyzed protein is quickly absorbed and utilized by the body and can potentially help your recover faster. Protein supplements with hydrolyzed protein might also be easier on your stomach.

Protein (Isolate)

Whey protein isolate is a popular post-workout supplement. Whey separates from other dairy ingredients in the process of making cheese and yogurt. The whey is then dried and processed to ensure that the product contains 90% or more pure protein.

Protein (New Zealand)

New Zealand Protein refers to protein supplements derived from the milk from New Zealand cows. New Zealand is famous for its high standards for environmental sustainability and product safety. Their cows do not receive hormones, chemicals, antibiotics, GMOs, injected pathogens, or hyper-immunizations. Essentially, New Zealand cows are the healthiest and happiest in the world, and therefore provide the best dairy protein products.

Protein (Whey)

Cow’s milk is made from two proteins, casein and whey. During the cheese and yogurt process, whey separates in a liquid form. This liquid is then dried and powdered to form whey protein concentrates or isolates.

Pump

The full look and feeling in your muscles after finishing a workout attributed to increased blood flow resulting from repeatedly contracting the muscle.

Q

R

Repetitions

Referring to the repetitions in each set of an exercise. For example, performing one bicep curl is one rep.

Reps

See Repetitions.

S

Sets

Sets refers to how many times you repeat the repetitions. For example, bicep curls for three sets of eight means you perform eight bicep curls three times. Sets are separated by a designated rest time, usually between 30 seconds and two minutes.

Stack

See Supplement Stack.

Stevia

A natural sugar substitute from Stevia rebaudiana plants. Stevia contains no calories and is up to 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia is a popular additive to sports supplements to achieve delicious flavours without added sugar and calories.

Superset

A superset refers to a strength training technique in which you perform multiple sets of various exercises in succession without resting. For example, performing one set of eight squats then immediately performing one set of 12 calf raises before resting is a superset.

Supplement Stack

A combination of supplements taken to reach fitness goals, for example: pre-workout supplement, creatine supplement, protein shake, and EAA supplement.

Supplements

Sports or dietary supplements are products designed to provide nutrients that we may not get from our diet. Supplements can be pills, tablets, capsules, liquids, or powders. Supplements are not dietary staples but are used to bridge nutritional gaps.

T

Test Booster

Testosterone boosters are used to increase testosterone levels in the human body and are most often taken by men. Test boosters are used to improve muscle mass and support men’s reproductive health.

U

V

Vasodilator

Refers to supplements that cause blood vessels to relax and widen. Vasodilators improve your pump in the gym, reduce muscle soreness, lower blood pressure, and boost exercise performance.

Vegan

A diet and lifestyle in which people do not consume animal products, including everything from meat to dairy, eggs, and honey.

Vitamin

Organic compounds that are needed in small quantities to sustain human life. Vitamins and minerals are considered micronutrients, and we get them from varied diets. Dietary supplements can help ensure you consume all the necessary vitamins and minerals your body requires.

W

Whey Protein

See Protein (Whey).

X

Y

Z